A biography of alfonso xiii of spain

However, General Franco was trying to forge unity out of a very divided coalition of people opposed to the republic and that coalition included the Carlists. When Ena and Alonso's first child was born it was soon apparent that Ena had transmitted the disorder to their son. When he departed, he defiantly pledged to triumph over all those who opposed the monarchy but that he would not be the cause of a fratricidal war.

Given the chaotic state of affairs that existed, perhaps his greatest triumph was simply his survival and the survival of his family to one day manage the seemingly impossible and see a monarchy restored where it had been torn down and his descendants returned to the Spanish throne.

Hearing about the loveliness of the granddaughters of Queen Victoria of England he went to the court of King Edward Victoria's son he originally wanted Princess Patricia but since she was the daughter of Queen Victoria's second son and fourth born child she was considered too close to the throne to become Queen of Spain.

A biography of alfonso xiii of spain

But in September the Nationalist leader, General Francisco Franco , declared that the Nationalists would not restore Alfonso as king. Thrust onto the throne from his very birth, King Alfonso XIII had lived through the greatest changes in the recent history of Spain; the loss of the last of the empire, the First World War, the downfall of the monarchy and the horrors of the Second Republic and Spanish Civil War. In cooperation with the French, he restored order to north Africa and began extensive infrastructure upgrades in Spain. In July the army rebelled, and the Spanish Civil War began. This made Spain a hotbed for espionage but spared the country from the pain and losses the combatants suffered. The new system entailed a commitment between the monarch and two political parties Conservatives and Liberals. He also supported the creation of a network of state-run lodges Parador in historic buildings of Spain. In January she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. He continued the system of alternating conservative and liberal governments based on continued elections , but he increasingly intervened in politics in order to rotate governments. Official Alfonso XIII biographies argue that several blunders committed by the king during his reign were offset by his humanitarian work during the First World War; this was also a point made by the royalist propaganda in the Second Spanish Republic. There were obstacles to the marriage. The left was increasingly united while the right was increasingly divided. King Alfonso XIII was finally persuaded by his closest friends to leave the country for his own safety.

Nevertheless, he sent his son Juan to Spain into participate in the uprising. Many hopes were pinned on the young man as the event was celebrated with parties, patriotic demonstrations and bullfights in the traditional fashion. However, he was arrested at the border and sent back into exile.

He found her attractive, and she returned his interest.

alfonso xii of spain

He was very fond of history and became an excellent linguist, but his chief joy was military instruction. The need for the lodging of his wedding guests prompted the construction of the luxury Hotel Palace in Madrid.

While the wedding procession was returning to the Royal Palace, an assassination attempt was made on the King and his new Queen.

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For the social, political, and economic situation in Spain during Alfonso's reign, Raymond Carr, Spain: , is highly recommended. His reign would be one of the most pivotal in Spanish history and yet, at almost every stage, others would be far more involved in these events than he would. In January she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match. He sent Alfonso to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst , in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, given the current atmosphere. He intervened directly in the Moroccan War in with such disastrous effect that a subsequent commission of inquiry placed the blame squarely on him for the defeat at Annual Anwal. King Alfonso XIII then tried to carry on governing the country himself with the power structure that had been erected. Francisco Franco. In order to eliminate one of the problems of the reign of Isabel II, the single party and its destabilizing consequences, the Liberal Party was allowed to incorporate and participate in national politics, and the 'turnismo' or alternation was to become the new system. He was a monarchist but his success depended on keeping the support of more republican minded nationalists among the Falange movement as well as the two opposing royalist factions so, while everyone expected a restoration of the monarchy, Franco refused to commit himself too much on the subject. This office used the Spanish diplomatic and military network abroad to intercede for thousands of POWs — transmitting and receiving letters for them, and other services. In , on his 16th birthday, he assumed full authority as king.

After Spanish unrest in the summer ofincluding military insubordination Juntas Nacionales de Defensapolitical challenge to the system Asamblea de Parlamentarios in Barcelonaand the revolutionary general strike, Alfonso XIII was considered to be more sympathetic to the German position.

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Alfonso XII of Spain