The powers of each branch are enumerated in the Constitution, with powers not assigned to them reserved to the states. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills. Section 2 1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction ;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State; 10 —between Citizens of different States, —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
Some people argue that time, place, and manner restrictions are relied on too heavily by free speech doctrine, resulting in less free speech allowed in public forums. In order to prevent arbitrary changes, the process for making amendments is quite onerous. Americans disagreed about both the scope of these provisions and the degree to which the federal government had some implied power or duty to enforce them.
For the legislature, two issues were to be decided: how the votes were to be allocated among the states in the Congress, and how the representatives should be elected.