An overview of the problems of philosophy and bertrand russells theory of prejudice

An overview of the problems of philosophy and bertrand russells theory of prejudice

The first is that, even if some law which has no exceptions applies to our case, we can never, in practice, be sure that we have discovered that law and not one to which there are exceptions. Which is the true texture? Thus the sense-data which make up the appearance of my table are things with which I have acquaintance, things immediately known to me just as they are. Of course similar things happen in dreams, where we are mistaken as to the existence of other people. It is sometimes said that 'light is a form of wave-motion', but this is misleading, for the light which we immediately see, which we know directly by means of our senses, is not a form of wave-motion, but something quite different -- something which we all know if we are not blind, though we cannot describe it so as to convey our knowledge to a man who is blind. When we see what looks like our best friend approaching us, we shall have no reason to suppose that his body is not inhabited by the mind of our worst enemy or of some total stranger. Because the horizon is so open, we must use experience, knowledge gained from acquaintance and description, to determine what is true. If any one asks: 'Why should I accept the results of valid arguments based on true premisses? This dualism of fact and a priori truth is not of course grounded in Kant's fashion; but it rests on a prejudice like his. We must attach some meaning to the words we use, if we are to speak significantly and not utter mere noise; and the meaning we attach to our words must be something with which we are acquainted.

Hence also the free intellect will value more the abstract and universal knowledge into which the accidents of private history do not enter, than the knowledge brought by the senses, and dependent, as such knowledge must be, upon an exclusive and personal point of view and a body whose sense-organs distort as much as they reveal.

This enlargement of Self is not obtained when, taking the Self as it is, we try to show that the world is so similar to this Self that knowledge of it is possible without any admission of what seems alien. We might state the argument by which they support their view in some such way as this: 'Whatever can be thought of is an idea in the mind of the person thinking of it; therefore nothing can be thought of except ideas in minds; therefore anything else is inconceivable, and what is inconceivable cannot exist.

Experience clearly plays a role in giving us an understanding of these prinicples.

Bertrand russell the value of philosophy citation

Thus although truth and falsehood are properties of beliefs, yet they are in a sense extrinsic properties, for the condition of the truth of a belief is something not involving beliefs, or in general any mind at all, but only the objects of the belief. But the implied distinction, we have seen, is vicious, and in asserting truths you are asserting about the actual thing. He concludes that, "through the greatness of the universe which philosophy contemplates, the mind also is rendered great. Science and common sense assume that there is a public space in which objects exist. It is evident from what we have found, that there is no colour which preeminently appears to be the colour of the table, or even of any one particular part of the table -- it appears to be of different colours from different points of view, and there is no reason for regarding some of these as more really its colour than others. We have spoken of acquaintance with the contents of our minds as self-consciousness, but it is not, of course, consciousness of our self: it is consciousness of particular thoughts and feelings. He starts by introducing the crux of the important philosophical theories of Bishop George Berkeley , who posed the question, what is the difference between appearance and reality? Because the horizon is so open, we must use experience, knowledge gained from acquaintance and description, to determine what is true. Inductive reasoning refers to a form of reasoning that constructs or assesses propositions that are generalizations of observations Russell We think of an idea as essentially something in somebody's mind, and thus when we are told that a tree consists entirely of ideas, it is natural to suppose that, if so, the tree must be entirely in minds. The above principle is merely one of a certain number of self-evident logical principles.

Russell says, become acquainted with, but the meaning of the doctrine is deeper is a miracle, that is, something the alleged conditions of whose existence contradict the conditions of knowledge, so that in as far as we prove it to exist, we ipso facto prove it not to be what it was said to be.

Philosophy has a value—perhaps its chief value—through the greatness of the objects which it contemplates, and the freedom from narrow and personal aims resulting from this contemplation.

according to bertrand russell, what is the chief value of philosophy?

But Green lives up to it; the question is if Mr. The most important attempt at a definition of this sort is the theory that truth consists in coherence. Inductive reasoning refers to a form of reasoning that constructs or assesses propositions that are generalizations of observations Russell

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The Problems Of Philosophy, by Bertrand Russell