Goldman, A. In fact, the problem has been known since the Middle Agesand both Indian philosopher Dharmottara and scholastic logician Peter of Mantua presented examples of it. This proposal would not simply be that the evidence overlooks at least one fact or truth.
What is the smallest imaginable alteration to the case that would allow belief b to become knowledge?
Among the many that could have done so, it happens to be the belief that there is a sheep in the field. If S competently deduces Q from her belief that P, thereby coming to know Q via deductive inferencethen S knew that P and she maintained her knowledge of P throughout the inference.
Smith seems to have excellent evidence to believe that Jones will get the job and Jones has ten coins in his pocket.
Gettier's two original counterexamples[ edit ] Gettier's paper used counterexamples see also thought experiment to argue that there are cases of beliefs that are both true and justified—therefore satisfying all three conditions for knowledge on the JTB account—but that do not appear to be genuine cases of knowledge.
He says that a belief is not knowledge if it is true only courtesy of some relevant accident. Sections 7 through 11 will present some attempted diagnoses of such cases.
Lewis and A. In case 2, Smith again has accepted a questionable idea Jones owns a Ford with unspecified justification.