Goldenrod and gall fly research
Recent evidence suggests that host shifts and subsequent host-race formation by herbivorous insects are more common than has previously been recognized Bush,; Tauber and Tauber, ; Craig et al. However, these results should be viewed cautiously even though they were statistically significant.
You could then release any adult flies back to where you found them. It will rest and allow its wings to inflate and dry for some time before heading off to find a mate and start the cycle over again. A recently emerged Goldenrod Gall Fly. Of the many different kinds of goldenrods found in Manitoba, the flies are known to use only two, graceful goldenrod Solidago canadensis and late goldenrod Solidago gigantea. The galling of Solidago by Eurosta created a new resource that has led to a subsequent host range expansion by the stem-boring beetle. The alternative, or as an extra step, is to pop out some larvae at room temperature, watch them squirming around for a bit, then put them into a freezer for a couple of hours. Getting and Storing Goldenrod Galls You can find graceful goldenrod plants wherever there are unmown grassland areas or forest edges. If so, gall flies attacking S. The 3rd stage larva reaches its full size by late summer; this is the stage that will over-winter and is freeze tolerant. Locked within the galls that often protrude above the snowpack, the larvae may freeze and thaw many times over the winter, sometimes on a daily basis. High levels of the cryoprotectants protect the intracellular environment while ice accumulates outside the cells. If geographic isolation lasts long enough, the populations may diverge to a point that interbreeding is no longer possible—one species divides into several. Eurosta galls containing M. Adults do not feed and typically live as little as a few days to perhaps as many as 10 days. We can never be certain that present-day ecological and genetic conditions match past circumstances or that present population-level situations can be extended to explain larger-scale, phylogenetic patterns Rausher,
Perils to Gall Flies Even inside their tough galls the larvae of gall flies are not completely safe. The most common chemical in anti-freeze, ethylene glycol, is a close "relative" to glycerol, the gall fly larva's cryoprotectant anti-freeze.
You could then release any adult flies back to where you found them. By early autumn the third final instar larvae have reached their maximum size.
Consequently, we cultured extensive numbers of stems from various goldenrod species and have reared M.
As a final task about mid-October in the Ottawa areathey eat a tunnel out to near the surface of the gall leaving just the epithelium intact and then settle back into the center of the gall to spend the winter. However, we have occasionally encountered fields e.
Adult females lay their eggs on the surfaces of newly formed galls and the larvae bore into galls where they develop by feeding on the parenchymal tissues induced by the gall fly larva Ping, At the MDH locus, there were significant allele frequency differences between stem and gall populations Table 1but none of the five loci studied distinguished between the sub-populations in the stems of the two Solidago species or between the sub-populations in the two galls.
Goldenrod and gall fly research
Below, we provide a summary of the ecological, behavioral, and genetic attributes of host-race formation by the gall-inducer E. Demonstrating Freezing and Thawing There are a couple of ways that you could demonstrate the remarkable tolerance of the gall fly larvae to sub-zero cold. Such host shifts to closely related plants often appear to be limited by herbivore host-plant preference or an herbivore's inability to utilize a chemically and developmentally distinct host. Our findings lend credence to recent assertions that sympatric speciation may be an important source of biodiversity. The pupal stage lasts about 2 weeks, then the adult fly emerges and crawls out to the end of the previously excavated exit tunnel. As a consequence, a host shift from the ancestral host-plant Solidago altissima to the novel host-plant S. Hence, we will never know all the details of the genetic differentiation of sub-populations of Eurosta and Mordellistena. Adults do not feed and typically live as little as a few days to perhaps as many as 10 days. Gall flies don't fly very far from where they emerged. The 3rd stage larva reaches its full size by late summer; this is the stage that will over-winter and is freeze tolerant. They have difficulty righting themselves if they fall on their backs! As a final task about mid-October in the Ottawa area , they eat a tunnel out to near the surface of the gall leaving just the epithelium intact and then settle back into the center of the gall to spend the winter. Then, with the warmer temperatures of spring the larva is stimulated to transform into a pupa , where the final transformation to winged adult takes place.
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