How political strife during the 1960s shaped the growing trends in postwar art

Counterculture history

Reagan swept forty-nine of the fifty states. The Free Speech Movement, as it was now called, responded with an occupation of Sproul Hall, an administration building, The university called in the cops, and on the night of 3rd December some students were carried from the Hall to waiting paddy-wagons. The many debates regarding art and propaganda, representation and identity, assimilation versus militancy, and parochialism versus globalism enriched perspectives on issues of art, culture, politics, and ideology that have emerged in African-American culture. In terms of their social destinations, however, most students could no longer expect to join the upper class, although some could entertain such hopes. This created a storm of protest from within conservative circles in the South. Victorious but battered, Britain was, a threadbare and austere country with an exhausted economy, now that American aid was withdrawn, and the French economy was dislocated: "food was scarce in the winter of , and there were virtually no reserves of gold or foreign currency". Among these were Mario Savio and Jack Weinberg, who would soon be projected into new and previously unknown roles as militant campus student leaders at Berkeley. They served in the armed forces and worked in government offices, in fields and factories, and in Hitler's bunker and Churchill's underground Cabinet War Rooms; Hitler's pilot, Hanna Reitsch — [ ] flew the last plane in and out of Berlin, when Soviet troops were already in the German capital. Dada artists met and formed groups of like-minded peers in Paris, Berlin, Cologne, and New York City who engaged in activities such as public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art and literary journals. In the view of the Senate and of over 65 percent of the American people, the affair and his perjury was not the "high crime and misdemeanor" that the Founding Fathers had in mind when they created the impeachment clause. The passage of the emergency powers legislation drove some to cynicism and personalistic withdrawal. We must also consider the view that the two World Wars should not necessarily be treated as autonomous but perhaps be seen as parts of a single conflict, a "Thirty Years War" of the twentieth century, 2 a conflict that arose from the long-term political and economic rivalries of great powers and Europe's fault lines which led these rivalries to ignite into warfare. With the introduction of large-scale radio broadcasts in , Americans were able to experience different styles of music without physically visiting a jazz club. Yet, paradoxically, it was the threat from one super power and the protection of the other that provided the context for the post-war success of European supra-nationalism and the most important reason for it, the rapprochement of France and Germany.

These and other student demonstrations shifted opinion in Germany. Dance Styles Dance clubs across the United States sponsored contests in which dancers invented and competed with new moves and professionals began to hone their skills in tap dance and other current moves.

In Britain, the war undoubtedly led to a controlled economy, and the Beveridge Report of is seen as leading to post-war welfare legislation and was a factor in the election victory of the Labour Party under Clement Attlee — [ ] in Whether these twin developments were complementary or whether the latter involved a degree of anti-Americanism is arguable, especially in the case of France.

But, and here the two Germanys can be taken as representative, a gulf opened when it came to the consumer revolution in the production of automobiles, refrigerators and other "white goods" to satisfy the aspirations of consumers, it was West Germany and Western Europe which made progress.

counterculture 1960s

When the state Governor intervened, he was challenged by a university-wide strike. The number of universities increased from in to inthe numbers of students in post-secondary schools grew by per cent between and Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I and became an international phenomenon, although it was initially an informal movement intended to protest the outbreak of World War I and the bourgeois, nationalist, and colonialist interests that Dadaists believed were root causes of the conflict.

But the other main story of the first two years was a failed health care reform package, developed by a task force led by Hillary Clinton.

Counterculture hippies

After all, no one could accuse him of being soft on Communism. Golden Age of Hollywood: A period during which Hollywood studios prolifically produced movies; it lasted from the end of the silent era in American cinema in the late s to the early s. It was one of the first student movements to decline and fade. Here the ruling presumption was that protest is an expression of anomie, irrationality and psychological disturbance. This pop-culture movement was personified by the flappers, whose fashion styles represented their free spirits and new social openness. Going into the presidential election, it was clear that Nixon would easily defeat his opponent, George McGovern. In Renault their freedom was alienated. Innovation and liveliness were important characteristics of performers in the beginnings of jazz. There was no sense, however, of a major crisis brewing. Probably, again as with most social developments, it is more realistic to see the war as, at best, giving a push, and perhaps only a brief one, to change. Most were married and over As the Civil Rights Movement split over the emergence of Black Power, many white woman civil rights activists joined the New Left, a predominantly campus-based organization that started groups like Students for a Democratic Society SDS.

If the conduct of the western Allies was far superior, total war cannot be waged without leaving desolation and a huge loss of civilian life in its wake and, what one author has called, "collective amnesia", 5 has obscured the costs of liberation as armies fought their way through France, Belgium and Holland.

Surrealism spread around the globe and impacted the visual arts, literature, theater, film, and music.

Counterculture music

According to one survey, only 15 per cent of the sit-in participants from public colleges reported that their administrations had been supportive. Short hair, flattened breasts, and straight waists were some common features of this look. A fourth was headed for the White House when courageous passengers and crew stormed the cockpit and forced to plane to crash in the Pennsylvania countryside. Central to this thesis is the argument that the war had a socially levelling impact and that significant indicators were a narrowing of the gap between rich and poor in terms of incomes and wealth due to income tax, death duties and an increase in state welfare; it did not erode class differences, but improved the position of the working classes. Essentially the imperial powers lost the appetite and will to hold on to empires, which were no longer seen as worthwhile by their home electorates. Central Europe has been described as a "lunar landscape dotted with enormous heaps of rubble and bomb craters", 6 while, in Berlin, "Ninety-five per cent of its urban area lay in ruins". Hollywood film studios flooded the box office with extravagant and lavish musical films, many of which were filmed in early Technicolor, a process that created color motion pictures rather than the starker black-and-white films. But every major theme of the past sixty years had its origins in World War II and its aftermath. Machines, technology, and Cubist elements were features of their work. Flappers Flappers were the personification of a new spirit in fashion, dance, and music in the s.
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Some Reflections on Student Movements of the s and Early s