What are the major theories in psychology
Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. A Word From Verywell Studying other scientific theories provides a background in what researchers understand about how the natural world works. Many biological psychologists have concentrated on abnormal behavior and have tried to explain it. Psychological Review, , — Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind : free association, dream analysis and slips of the tongue. Say, you blame your smoking habit on an oral fixation that stems from being weaned from breastfeeding too early as a baby. Psychologists and researchers often use grand theories as a basis for exploration but consider smaller theories and recent research as well. Social comparison theory — suggests that humans gain information about themselves, and make inferences that are relevant to self-esteem, by comparison to relevant others. What makes a theory so different from a mere guess or hunch is that a theory is testable. You may even hear people dismiss certain information because it is "only a theory. Among them is the idea that small numbers of objects are associated with easily recognizable patterns. Have you ever wondered why some people are the life of the party and others prefer to curl up with a good book?
These large theories that attempt to explain everything often end up being vague and can seldom make specific predictions. Figure 4. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
Unlike stage theories, people do not progress through the typologies in any order or at all. As with informal and formal theories, both broad and narrow theories have their place in psychological research. What Exactly Is a Theory? A Word From Verywell Studying other scientific theories provides a background in what researchers understand about how the natural world works. Some of the best-known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality including the trait theory of personality , the "big 5" theory of personality , and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This theory specifies several key variables and the relationships among them. Triangular theory of love — by Sternberg, characterizes love in an interpersonal relationship on three different scales: intimacy, passion, and commitment. It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. The five major perspectives in psychology are biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic. You think the way you do because of the way your brain is built and because of your body's needs. These theories are often rooted in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and explain the whole of human behavior and growth. Informal theories tend to be easier to create and to understand but less precise in their predictions, which can make them more difficult to test. Formal theories tend to be more difficult to create and to understand—sometimes requiring a certain amount of mathematical or computer programming background—but they also tend to be more precise in their predictions and therefore easier to test.
A theory of classical conditioning that features an equation describing how the strength of the association between unconditioned and conditioned stimuli changes when the two are paired.
All your choices come from trying to improve your life. It means that for the biological approach, you are the sum of your parts.
So, with this approach, we turn away from people as machines without free will and delve back into thoughts and feelings. These include: Behavioral Theories Behavioral psychologyalso known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.
Self-perception theory — emphasizes that we observe ourselves in the same manner that we observe others, and draw conclusions about our likes and dislikes.
Psychologists from this camp focus on how you can feel good about yourself by fulfilling your needs and goals.
Informal theories tend to be easier to create and to understand but less precise in their predictions, which can make them more difficult to test. A Word From Verywell Studying other scientific theories provides a background in what researchers understand about how the natural world works.
Social psychology theories pdf
Others have not held up under close scientific scrutiny and may have been rejected altogether or only partially accepted by researchers today. The behavioral approach is really effective when you don't care what someone thinks, as long as you get the desired behavior. Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick then the way to do it is to figure out what processes are actually going on in their minds. Biological Approach Biopsychologists look at how your nervous system, hormones and genetic makeup affect your behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units. It is important for beginning researchers to be aware of the different types so that they recognize theories when they see them in the research literature. In addition, they have not been particularly successful at organizing or predicting the range and complexity of human behaviour at the level of detail that scientific researchers usually seek. Have you ever wondered why some people are the life of the party and others prefer to curl up with a good book? An approach is a perspective i. The influence of these theories affects us every day and throughout our lives, impacting everything from why we follow the rules of the road when driving to how advertising companies build campaigns to get us to buy their products. These findings have helped psychiatry take off and help relieve the symptoms of the mental illness through drugs.
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