Discussion ECT is currently the most effective therapeutic option for treatment-resistant depression; yet its mechanisms remain poorly understood. As previously mentioned the majority of clozapine augmentation studies with ECT were case reports or open label studies 26 and therefore it is difficult to compare the this study with others, except for the Petrides et al.
Pacella et al. Whereas neurogenesis is observed in the hippocampus, gliogenesis and pronounced volumetric changes are also found in additional areas including the amygdala and prefrontal cortex after ECS. For at least half of the patients, the benefits of the initial treatment are short-lived[ citation needed ].
What is causing the reduced drug-placebo difference in recent schizophrenia clinical trials and what can be done about it?
Third, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is activated, which may last at least for several days.
Olavs plass, Oslo, Norway. In animal models of ECT, repeated electroconvulsive shock ECS elicits widespread cell proliferation in both rodents and non-human primates.The last decade, increased focus has been on the role of glutamate-GABA processes in the neurobiological changes seen in depression 9. The standard induction agents in pregnancy are methohexital and propofol due to their rapid onset of action and rapid clearance from the fetal circulation with no evidence that either pose a risk to pregnancy. In a review, Weiner considered the duration of EEG slowing based on analysis of 21 studies and summarized p. They were allocated into two groups using block design randomization. Meeting to discuss the classification of electroconvulsive therapy devices ect. In the weeks and months following ECT these memory problems gradually improve, but some people have persistent losses, especially with bilateral ECT. Later research by the same author suggested memory of events in the months prior to treatment might be lost, as well as suggesting that self-report of memory loss was in fact a problem before treatment which patients associated with it . Full size image For ROI analysis, a corrected alpha level of 0. Clozapine and therapeutic drug monitoring: is there sufficient evidence for an upper threshold? The first four decades of ECT-EEG research consistently observed that the immediate effect of the intervention is a strong rise in brain activation level and the induction of a generalized epileptiform tonic-clonic seizure, followed by a brief post-ictal silent period with a flat or greatly diminished EEG. On the basis of functional imaging findings and other empirical data, current theories support that depression-related pathophysiology stems from under-reactive dorsal frontolimbic networks centrally involved in mood regulation as well as from over-reactive ventrolimbic networks, which modulate the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis and govern emotional responses.